Name or Title
존 맥카시 (John McCarthy) 과학자, 전 대학교수 '인공지능'(Artificial Intelligence)용어 창안
[출생-사망] 1927년 9월 4일, 미국 - 2011년 10월 24일 (84세) [5분]
[경력사항] 1999 미국 컴퓨터 역사 박물관 회원 1962 미국 스탠포드대학교 인공지능연구실 1962 ~ 2000 미국 스탠포드대학교 교수 미국 매사추세츠공과대학교 미국 다트머스대학교 미국 스탠포드대학교 미국 프린스턴대학교
[학력사항] 프린스턴대학교 대학원 수학과 박사 ~ 1948 캘리포니아공과대학교 수학과 학사 [추천 유튜브 동영상]
[수상내역] 2011 국제전기전자통신 명예의 전당 1991 미국 국가과학상 1988 교토상 1971 튜링상 [Recommended Youtube Video]
존 매카시(John McCarthy, 1927년 9월 4일 ~ 2011년 10월 24일)는 미국의 전산학자이자 인지 과학자이다. 인공지능에 대한 연구 업적을 인정 받아 1971년 튜링상을 수상했다. 리스프 프로그 래밍 언어를 발명했으며, 1956년에 다트머스 학 회에서 처음으로 '인공지능'(Artificial Intelligence)이라는 용어를 창안했다.
<수상 및 명예> 튜링상 (1971년) 교토상 (1988년) 미국 과학 훈장 (1990년) 컴퓨터 역사 박물관의 회원으로 입회 (1999년) 벤자민 프랭클린 메달 (2003년) IEEE 인텔리전트 시스템의 AI의 명예의 전당 (2011년) - AI와 지능 체계 분야에 중대한 기여를 함 2012 스탠퍼드 엔지니어링 히어로즈의 한 명으로 이름을 올림 [추천 유튜브 동영상]
[주요 저서] McCarthy, J. 1959. Programs with Common Sense. In Proceedings of the Teddington Conference on the Mechanization of Thought Processes, 756-91. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office. McCarthy, J. 1960. Recursive functions of symbolic expressions and their computation by machine. Communications of the ACM 3 (4):184-195. McCarthy, J. 1963a A basis for a mathematical theory of computation. In Computer Programming and formal systems. North-Holland. [추천 유튜브 동영상]
McCarthy, J. 1963b. Situations, actions, and causal laws. Technical report, Stanford University. McCarthy, J., and Hayes, P. J. 1969. Some philosophical problems from the standpoint of artificial intelligence. In Meltzer, B., and Michie, D., eds., Machine Intelligence 4. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. 463-502. McCarthy, J. 1977. Epistemological problems of artificial intelligence. In IJCAI, 1038-1044. McCarthy, J. 1980. Circumscription: A form of non-monotonic reasoning. Artificial Intelligence 13(1-2):23-79. McCarthy, J. 1986. Applications of circumscription to common sense reasoning. Artificial Intelligence 28(1):89-116. McCarthy, J. 1990. Generality in artificial intelligence. In Lifschitz, V., ed., Formalizing Common Sense. Ablex. 226-236. McCarthy, J. 1993. Notes on formalizing context. In IJCAI, 555-562. McCarthy, J., and Buvac, S. 1997. Formalizing context: Expanded notes. In Aliseda, A.; van Glabbeek, R.; and Westerstahl, D., eds., Computing Natural Language. Stanford University. Also available as Stanford Technical Note STAN-CS-TN-94-13. McCarthy, J. 1998. Elaboration tolerance. In Working Papers of the Fourth International Symposium on Logical formalizations of Commonsense Reasoning, Commonsense-1998. Costello, T., and McCarthy, J. 1999. Useful counterfactuals. Electronic Transactions on Artificial Intelligence 3(A):51-76 McCarthy, J. 2002. Actions and other events in situation calculus. In Fensel, D.; Giunchiglia, F.; McGuinness, D.; and Williams, M., eds., Proceedings of KR-2002, 615-628.
[Born] September 4, 1927 Boston, Massachusetts, U.S. [Died] October 24, 2011 (aged 84) Stanford, California, U.S. [Residence] United States [Nationality] American [Fields] Computer technology [Institutions] Stanford University; Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Dartmouth College; Princeton University [Alma mater] Princeton University; California Institute of Technology [Doctoral advisor] Solomon Lefschetz [Doctoral students] Ruzena Bajcsy Randall Davis Cordell Green Ramanathan V. Guha Barbara Liskov Robert Moore Francis Morris Raj Reddy Donald Kaplan Eyal Amir Aarati Parmar Martino [Known for] Artificial intelligence; Lisp; Circumscription; Situation calculus [Notable awards] Turing Award (1971) Computer Pioneer Award (1985) IJCAI Award for Research Excellence (1985) Kyoto Prize (1988) National Medal of Science (1990) Benjamin Franklin Medal (2003) [Recommended Youtube Video]
John McCarthy (September 4, 1927~ October 24, 2011) was an American computer scientist and cognitive scientist. McCarthy was one of the founders of the discipline of artificial intelligence. He coined the term "artificial intelligence" (AI), developed the Lisp programming language family, significantly influenced the design of the ALGOL programming language, popularized timesharing, and was very influential in the early development of AI. McCarthy received many accolades and honors, such as the Turing Award for his contributions to the topic of AI, the United States National Medal of Science, and the Kyoto Prize. [Recommended Youtube Video]
[Personal life and education] John McCarthy was born in Boston, Massachusetts on September 4, 1927 to an Irish immigrant father and a Lithuanian Jewish immigrant mother,John Patrick and Ida Glatt McCarthy. The family was obliged to relocate frequently during the Great Depression, until McCarthy's father found work as an organizer for the Amalgamated Clothing Workers in Los Angeles, California. His father, John Patrick, came from the fishing village of Cromane in County Kerry, Ireland.His mother, Ida, passed away in 1957. McCarthy was exceptionally intelligent, and graduated from Belmont High School two years early. He showed an early aptitude for mathematics; during his teens he taught himself college mathematics by studying the textbooks used at the nearby California Institute of Technology (Caltech). As a result, when McCarthy was accepted into Caltech in 1944, he was able to skip the first two years of mathematics. McCarthy was suspended from Caltech for failure to attend physical education courses; he then served in the US Army and was readmitted, receiving a B.S. in Mathematics in 1948. It was at Caltech that he attended a lecture by John von Neumann that inspired his future endeavors. McCarthy initially continued his studies at Caltech. He received a Ph.D. in Mathematics from Princeton University in 1951 as a student of Solomon Lefschetz. [Recommended Youtube Video]
McCarthy was married three times. His second wife was Vera Watson, a programmer and mountaineer who died in 1978 attempting to scale Annapurna I as part of an all-women expedition organised by Arlene Blum. He later married Carolyn Talcott, a computer scientist at Stanford and later SRI International. McCarthy considered himself an atheist. Raised as a Communist, after experiencing the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968 he became a conservative Republican. McCarthy died at his home in Stanford on October 14, 2011. (from naver.com wikipedia.org, 추천 유튜브 동영상, ** Selected & Recommended Youtube Videos are shown. **)
Computer, CA, Cognitive, Caltech, inluence(+)~ (PIG: time-variant)
Positive Influence GRADE (PIG): C+