Name or Title
[생애] 1889년 12월 3일 ~ 1950년 12월 23일 (61세)
[출생지] 미국 텍사스 주 벨턴 [사망지] 대한민국 경기도 양주군 노해면 (현, 서울시 도봉구 도봉동)
[복무] 미국 육군 [복무 기간] 1904년 ~ 1950년 [최종 계급] 대장 [근무] 5 보병 사단 [지휘] 3 기갑 사단, 20 군단, 5 군, 8 군 [주요 참전] 미국의 베라크루스 점령 세계 1차 대전 세계 2차 대전 한국 전쟁 [서훈 내역] 수훈십자장 (2) 순훈십자훈장 (2) 은성 훈장 (3) 레이옹 오브 메리트 수훈비행십자장 (2) 동성 훈장 항공 훈장 (14) 해리스 월턴 워커(Harris Walton Walker, 1889년 12월 3일 ~ 1950년 12월 23일(61세))는 미국의 육군 군인이다.
[생애] [초기] 1889년 12월 3일 텍사스 주 벨턴에서 태어 났다. 1912년 웨스트 포인트를 졸업한 뒤, 프레드릭 펀스턴 준장 아래에서 베라크루스 에 원정을, 그리고 미국 맥시코 간의 국경 을 순찰하였다. 미국이 제1차 세계대전에 참전하게 되자, 5 보병 사단 기관총대대 중 대장으로 참전하였으며, 은성 훈장을 수여 받았다. 종전 이후, 중국과 지휘 및 참모 학교, 웨스트 포인트와 기타, 그리고 1930 년에는 조지 마셜이 이끄는 보병 여단에서 집행 장교로서 근무하였다.
[제2차 세계 대전] 제2차 세계대전이 발발하자, 월턴 워커 소장은 3 기갑 사단장으로서 유럽 전선에 참전하였다. 조지 패튼 장군 휘하에서 20 군단장으로 임명되어 진격하였다. 워커 장군은 당시 북아프리카 전투에서 독일 제3제국 국방군의 롬멜부대와 맞서 공훈을 세우고 중장으로 승진하였다. 종전 후, 5 군 사령관직을 거쳐 1948년 주일(駐日) 8 군 사령관으로 임명되었다. [한국 전쟁] 1950년 6월 25일 북한에 의해 한국 전쟁이 발발하자, 미 극동군사령관 더글러스 맥아더 원수는 워커 중장에게 주일 미 제8군의 "제24사단을 한국으로 이동시키라."라는 명령을 하달(1950년 6월 30일)하였다. 월턴 워커 중장은 7월 13일 한반도로 파견되었다. "우리는 더 이상 물러설 수 없고, 더 이상 물러설 곳도 없다. 무슨 일이 있어도 결코 후퇴란 있을 수 없다." — 《낙동강 방어선을 사수하라고 부하들에게게 명령하면서》 "내가 여기서 죽더라도 끝까지 한국을 지키겠다." — 《낙동강 전선 시찰 도중 차출된 국군들과 함께》 "여기서 더 후퇴하면 내가 장례식을 치뤄주지 !!" 《1950년 7월 29일 낙동강 전선 시찰 후》 대한민국에 부임 당시 미숙했던 장병들만으 로 극도로 불리했던 낙동강 전선을 사수하 면서 그는 낙동강 방어선에서 죽는 한이 있 어도 무조건 방어하라고 부하들에게 명령했 다. 이에 한 부하가 반론을 제기하자, 옆에 있던 더글라스 맥아더가 "군대에는 민 주주의가 없다." 라는 말로 워커 중장의 지휘명령을 옹호해줬다. 이후 한반도에 상륙한 타흐신 야즈즈가 이끄는 터키 지원군의 지원을 받아, 낙동강 방어선을 방어해냈다.
[죽음] 1950년 12월 23일, 훗날 육군 대장이 되는 아들인 샘 S. 워커 대위의 은성 무공 훈장 수상을 축하해주기 위해 가던 중 의정부 남 쪽의 양주군 노해면(현재 서울특별시 도봉 구 도봉동 자리)에서 교통 사고로 죽었다. 그가 타고 있던 지휘관 지프는 빠른 속도 로 움직이는 민간인 차량을 피하다가 굴러 떨어졌으며, 시신은 아들에 의해 수습되어 미국 본토로 보내졌다. 이듬해 1951년 1월 2일, 알린턴 국립 묘지에서 화장되었으며, 대장으로 추서되었다. 월튼 워커 중장의 죽음으로 공석이 된 8군 사령관직은 매슈 리지웨이 중장이 후임으로 취임하였 다. [가족] 그의 외아들 샘 S. 워커 대위는 한국전쟁 당시 맨 앞에서 진두지휘하며 전투에 참여했다. 이후, 샘 워커 대위는 미국의 군사 역사상 최연소 대장으로 진급하게 된다.
이로 인하여 미육군 역사상 유일하게 아버지와 아들이 나란히 대장에 진급되는 영광을 누리게 된다. ========================================== Harris Walton Walker [Birth name] Walton Harris Walker [Nickname(s)] "Johnnie" [Born] December 3, 1889 Belton, Texas [Died] December 23, 1950 (aged 61), near Uijeongbu, South Korea [Place of burial] Arlington National Cemetery [Allegiance] United States of America [Service/branch] United States Army [Years of service] 1912 – 1950 [Rank] General [Unit] 5th Infantry Division [Commands held] 3rd Armored Division US Fifth Army patch.svg Fifth Army Eighth Army [Battles/wars] Veracruz (1914) World War I World War II Invasion of Normandy Battle of the Bulge [Korean War] Pusan Perimeter [Awards] Distinguished Service Cross (2) Distinguished Service Medal (2) Silver Star (3) Legion of Merit Distinguished Flying Cross (2) Bronze Star Air Medal (12) Army Commendation Medal [Relations] General Sam S. Walker (son)
Walton Harris Walker (December 3, 1889 – December 23, 1950) was a United States Army general (promoted posthumously to four-star rank) who was the first commander of the Eighth United States Army in Korea at the beginning of the Korean War. He died in a jeep accident in South Korea on December 23, 1950. Walker also was a commander in World War I and II. [Early life] Walker was born in Belton, Texas on December 3, 1889. His parents, Sam and Lydia Walker were both college graduates whose fathers had been officers in the Confederate Army. His father, a merchant, taught him how to ride a horse and to hunt and shoot. He graduated from the Wedemeyer Academy (established 1886-1911) in Belton. [United States Army career] He entered Virginia Military Institute (VMI) in 1907 and then transferred and graduated from West Point in 1912. As a lieutenant, he served in the Vera Cruz expedition under Brigadier General Frederick Funston. Patrolling on the U.S.-Mexican border in 1916, he developed a close friendship with Dwight Eisenhower. [World War I] During World War I, Walker fought in France with the 5th Infantry Division and was awarded the Silver Star for gallantry in action. After World War I, Walker rotated through a variety of assignments, including service in China, Command and General Staff School at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, and teaching duties in several posts, including West Point. In the 1930s he served as executive officer of an infantry brigade commanded by George Marshall, the future Army Chief of Staff. [World War II] When hostilities broke out in Europe in 1939, Walker was executive of the War Plans division of the general staff, but when Marshall (now Chief of Staff) assigned George Patton to organize America's armored forces, Walker successfully lobbied Marshall for a post as one of Patton's subordinate commanders, gaining promotion to brigadier general in the process. Promoted major general in 1942, he commanded Third Armored Division and eventually XX Corps, taking the latter to England in early 1944 and leading it into combat in Normandy in July as part of Patton's Third Army. Walker's XX Corps played a role in Patton's dash across France in August and early September 1944, earning the sobriquet "Ghost Corps" for the speed of its advance. Walker's troops saw heavy fighting in France and Germany during the remainder of the war, especially at Metz, the Battle of the Bulge, and in the invasion of Germany. In the spring of 1945 XX Corps liberated Buchenwald concentration camp then pushed south and east, eventually reaching Linz, Austria by May. Walker received his third star at this time, making him a Lieutenant-General. [Post-World War II] After the war Walker became commander of Fifth Army, headquartered in Chicago, but in 1948, was assigned as commanding general of the Eighth Army, the American occupation force in Japan. Walker was ordered by General Douglas MacArthur, the Supreme Allied Commander in Japan, to restore the depleted Army to combat-worthy condition. [Korean War] Shortly after the North Korean invasion of South Korea on June 25, 1950, the Eighth Army was ordered to intervene and drive the invaders back across the 38th parallel, the border between the two countries. With only four lightly equipped and poorly trained divisions, Walker began landing troops on the southeast side of the Korean peninsula in July. After his lead units, elements of the 24th Infantry Division (including the ill-fated Task Force Smith), were virtually destroyed in a few days of furious fighting between Osan and Taejon, Walker realized his assigned mission was impossible and went on the defensive. Pushed steadily back towards the southeast by the North Korean advance, Walker's forces suffered heavy losses and for a time were unable to form a defensible front, even after bringing the 1st Cavalry and 25th Infantry Divisions into the fight. Walker's situation was not helped by unrealistic demands from MacArthur in Tokyo not to retreat an inch. Attempting to obey, Walker gave a bombastic "not a step back" speech to his staff and subordinate commanders which did not go over well. Nor did it stop the North Koreans from pushing back the Americans and the Republic of Korea Army (ROK), which had been badly mauled in the opening days of the invasion, even further. As American and ROK forces retreated further east and south, they finally arrived at a defensible line on the Nakdong River. They took advantage of shortened supply routes and a relatively good road network to exploit the advantages of "interior lines". Walker was able to quickly shift his units from point to point, stopping North Korean attacks before they could be reinforced. A critical advantage General Walker had was that military intelligence had cracked the North Korean radio codes. So Walker knew every major North Korean Army movement prior to the event. Walker kept his main units deployed on the front lines but he kept Army and Marine units as a mobile reserve and with his ability to read North Korean intentions he could rush in reinforcements to plug any local breaks in the line on short notice. His advance knowledge of enemy movements also allowed him to be able to employ artillery and airpower to great effect. American forces gradually solidified this defensive position on the southeast side of the Korean peninsula, dubbed the "Pusan Perimeter". Walker received reinforcements, including the Provisional Marine Brigade, which he used along with the Army's 27th Infantry Regiment as "fire brigades," reliable troops who specialized in counterattacking and wiping out enemy penetrations. As more reinforcements arrived, the combat advantage shifted toward the American and South Korean forces. North Korean forces had suffered terribly and their supply lines were under constant aerial bombardment. Almost all of their T-34 tanks, which spearheaded the invasion, had been destroyed. Walker ordered local counterattacks while planning for a large scale breakout in conjunction with MacArthur's Inchon landing in September. With MacArthur's amphibious flanking move, the North Koreans seemed trapped but Walker's rapid advance northwest towards Inchon and Seoul emphasized speed over maneuver and made no attempt to encircle and destroy the North Koreans after punching through their lines. Although thousands of prisoners were taken, many North Korean units successfully disengaged from the fighting, melting away into the interior of South Korea where they would conduct a guerrilla war for two years. Others escaped all the way back to North Korea. With the war apparently won, Walker's Eighth Army quickly moved north and, with the independent X Corps on its right, crossed the 38th parallel to occupy North Korea. Fighting tapered off to sporadic, sharp clashes with remnants of North Korean forces. By late October 1950 the Eighth Army was nearing the Yalu River, North Korea's border with China. Walker, informed by MacArthur's headquarters that the Chinese would not intervene, did not insure that his troops maintained watchful security. Due to a lack of coordination between Walker, General Edward Almond, Commander of the X Corps, and MacArthur's headquarters in Tokyo, a gap had opened between Eighth Army and X Corps as they moved close to the Chinese border. Eventually, the weather had turned savagely cold, and most American units had no training and inadequate equipment for the bitter temperatures. Contrary to MacArthur's expectations, the Chinese intervened in force; first in a series of ambushes, then in sporadic night attacks, and finally in an all-out offensive in which large Chinese forces infiltrated the lines, taking advantage of the American failure to take basic security measures, and the large intervals between American and South Korean units and between the Eighth Army and the X Corps. From late October until the beginning of December in 1950, the Chinese killed or captured thousands of American and ROK soldiers, decimating the 2nd Infantry Division and forcing Walker into a desperate retreat. By early December, using his superior mobility Walker successfully broke contact with the Chinese, withdrawing south to a position around Pyongyang, the capital of North Korea. Without instructions from MacArthur's headquarters, Walker decided that Eighth Army was too battered to defend Pyongyang and ordered the retreat resumed to below the 38th parallel. [Death] General Walker was killed in a military connected traffic accident on December 23, 1950, near Uijeongbu, South Korea, when his command jeep collided with a civilian truck at high speed as he inspected US military positions north of Seoul. His body was escorted back to the United States by his son, future US Army General Sam Sims Walker, then a battalion commander with the 19th Infantry Regiment, known as "The Rock of Chickamauga", who was also serving in Korea. General Walker was interred in Section 34 of Arlington National Cemetery on January 2, 1951. [Legacy and honors] Promoted posthumously to 4-star General, Walker's memory was much honored in the years immediately following the Korean War. The Army chose his name (and his other nickname), for its next light tank, the M41 Walker Bulldog. Dallas, Texas, named the western segment of Texas State Highway Loop 12 after him (the portion going through neighboring Irving, Texas continues the naming convention). One of the largest Armed Forces Recreation Center's hotels, the General Walker Hotel in Berchtesgaden (now demolished), was also named in his honor. Camp Walker in Daegu, ROK is named in his honor. The M41 Tank was already nicknamed the Little Bulldog before Gen. Walker's death and Army retained Bulldog as part of the new nickname for the M41 Tank, while dropping the word little. In 1963, South Korea President Park Chung-hee honored the general by naming a hill in the southern part of Seoul after Walker. Today, Walker Hill is the site of the Sheraton Walker Hill, a five-star international resort and hotel, and Walker Hill Apartment in Gwangjin-Gu. In December 2009, the mayor of Dobong-gu district, Choi Sun- Kil, unveiled the Walton Harris Walker monument to mark the site of his death. The memorial, which is near Dobong subway Station, pays tribute to Walker and to all those who defended South Korea in the Korean War. Walker Intermediate School, located on the Ft. Knox Army Garrison, opened in 1962 and is named in his honor. His picture hangs in the school lobby. A biography of Walker was published in 2008 called "General Walton H. Walker: Forgotten Hero-The Man Who Saved Korea", by Charles M. Province. Little known but of particular interest to many is the fact that General Walker was of 'mixed ethnicity', most likely including Native American and/or African-American ancestry. (U.S. National Archives document, DCAS,KS.EXT08.DAT) (from naver.com wikipedia.org)
Cross,Commander,Confederate army,Chicago,Combat,Command jeep Collided ~ (PIG: time-variant)
Positive Influence GRADE (PIG): C+