|2023-11-27 오후 3:48:21
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|안데르스 셀시우스 [ Anders Celsius ]
[출생] 1701년 11월 27일
1744년 4월 25일 (42세)
[학교] 스웨덴 웁살라 대학교
[스웨덴 웁살라 대학교]
[활동분야] 천문학, 물리학
《지구와 태양간 거리측정의 새 방법》(1730) 등
안데르스 셀시우스(Anders Celsius, 1701년 ~ 1744년)는
웁살라에서 출생하여 웁살라 대학 교수가 되었다.
독일·프랑스·영국 등지를 여행하면서
그의 협력자들과 북극의 오로라를 316번이나 관측하였다.
웁살라에 천문대를 건설하여, 초대 천문대장이 되었다.
또, 물의 빙점과 비등점 사이를 100 °C로 나누는
섭씨 온도(°C)를 제창하였다.
저서에 <지구 형상 결정에 관한 관측>이 있다.
[생애 활동 등]
스웨덴의 천문학자, 물리학자이다.
16년간에 걸쳐 오로라를 관측했고 라플란드 지방의
자오선 측정을 제안했다.
물리학에서는 100분 눈금의 한란계를 창시하여
섭씨온도계의 기원이 된 것으로 잘 알려져 있다.
1730~1744년 웁살라대학 교수,
웁살라천문대 대장(1740)을 역임하였다.
[스웨덴 웁살라 대학교]
16년간에 걸쳐 오로라를 관측하고,
1733년 그 결과를 발표하였다.
라플란드 지방의 자오선 측정을 제안하고,
1736년 프랑스탐험대에 참가하였다.
물리학에서는 1742년에 100분 눈금의 한란계를 창시하여,
현재의 섭씨온도계의 기원이 된 것으로 잘 알려져 있다.
주요저서로는 《지구와 태양간 거리측정의 새 방법:
Dissertatio de Nova Methodo Distantiam
Solis a Terra Determinandi, A Dissertation
on a New Method of Determining the Distance
from the Sun to the Earth》(1730)
《지구의 형태를 결정하기 위한 관측에 관하여：
De Observationibus pro
Figura Telluris Determinanda in Gallia Habitis,
Disquisito:Disquisition on Observations Made
in Gaul for Determining the Shape of the Earth》(1738)
[Born] 27 November 1701
[Died] 25 April 1744 (aged 42)
Astronomy, Physics, Mathematics, Geology
[Alma mater] Uppsala University
[Known for] Celsius
Anders Celsius (27 November 1701 ~ 25 April
1744) was a Swedish astronomer, physicist
and mathematician. He was professor of
astronomy at Uppsala University from 1730 to
1744, but traveled from 1732 to 1735
visiting notable observatories in Germany,
Italy and France. He founded the Uppsala
Astronomical Observatory in 1741, and in
1742 proposed the Celsius temperature scale
which bears his name.
[Early life and education]
Anders Celsius was born in Uppsala, Sweden
on 27 November 1701. His family originated
from Ovanaker in the province of
Hälsingland. Their family estate was at
Doma, also known as Höjen or Hogen
(locally as Högen 2). The name Celsius
is a latinization of the estate's name
(Latin celsus "mound").
As the son of an astronomy professor, Nils
Celsius, and the grandson of the
mathematician Magnus Celsius and the
astronomer Anders Spole, Celsius chose a
career in science. He was a talented
mathematician from an early age. Anders
Celsius studied at Uppsala University, where
his father was a teacher, and in 1730 he
too, became a professor of astronomy there.
In 1730, Celsius published the Nova Methodus
distantiam solis a terra determinandi (New
Method for Determining the Distance from the
Earth to the Sun). His research also
involved the study of auroral phenomena,
which he conducted with his assistant Olof
Hiorter, and he was the first to suggest a
connection between the aurora borealis and
changes in the magnetic field of the Earth.
He observed the variations of a compass
needle and found that larger deflections
correlated with stronger auroral activity.
At Nuremberg in 1733, he published a
collection of 316 observations of the aurora
borealis made by himself and others over the
Celsius traveled frequently in the early
1730s, including to Germany, Italy and
France, when he visited most of the major
European observatories. In Paris he
advocated the measurement of an arc of the
meridian in Lapland.
In 1736, he participated in the expedition organized for
that purpose by the French Academy of
Sciences, led by the French mathematician
Pierre Louis Maupertuis (1698–1759) to
measure a degree of latitude. The aim of the
expedition was to measure the length of a
degree along a meridian, close to the pole,
and compare the result with a similar
expedition to Peru, today in Ecuador, near
the equator. The expeditions confirmed Isaac
Newton''s belief that the shape of the earth
is an ellipsoid flattened at the poles.
In 1738, he published the De observationibus
pro figura telluris determinanda
(Observations on Determining the Shape of
the Earth). Celsius' participation in the
Lapland expedition won him much respect in
Sweden with the government and his peers,
and played a key role in generating interest
from the Swedish authorities in donating the
resources required to construct a new modern
observatory in Uppsala.
He was successful in the request,
and Celsius founded the Uppsala
Astronomical Observatory in 1741. The
observatory was equipped with instruments
purchased during his long voyage abroad,
comprising the most modern instrumental
technology of the period.
In astronomy, Celsius began a series of
observations using colored glass plates to
record the magnitude (a measure of
brightness) of certain stars. This was the
first attempt to measure the intensity of
starlight with a tool other than the human
eye. He made observations of eclipses and
various astronomical objects and published
catalogues of carefully determined
magnitudes for some 300 stars using his own
photometric system (mean error=0.4 mag).
Celsius was the first to perform and publish
careful experiments aiming at the definition
of an international temperature scale on
scientific grounds. In his Swedish
paper "Observations of two persistent
degrees on a thermometer" he reports on
experiments to check that the freezing point
is independent of latitude (and of
He determined the dependence of the boiling of water with
atmospheric pressure which was accurate even
by modern-day standards. He further gave a
rule for the determination of the boiling
point if the barometric pressure deviates
from a certain standard pressure.
He proposed the Celsius temperature scale in a
paper to the Royal Society of Sciences in
Uppsala, the oldest Swedish scientific
society, founded in 1710. His thermometer
was calibrated with a value of 100° for the
freezing point of water and 0° for the
boiling point. In 1745, a year after
Celsius'' death, the scale was reversed by
Carl Linnaeus to facilitate more practical
measurement. Celsius originally called his
scale centigrade derived from the Latin
for "hundred steps". For years it was simply
referred to as the Swedish thermometer.
Celsius conducted many geographical
measurements for the Swedish General map,
and was one of earliest to note that much of
Scandinavia is slowly rising above sea
level, a continuous process which has been
occurring since the melting of the ice from
the latest ice age. However, he wrongly
posed the notion that the water was
In 1725 he became secretary of the Royal
Society of Sciences in Uppsala, and served
at this post until his death from
tuberculosis in 1744. He supported the
formation of the Royal Swedish Academy of
Sciences in Stockholm in 1739 by Linnaeus
and five others, and was elected a member at
the first meeting of this academy. It was in
fact Celsius who proposed the new academy's name.
(from naver.com 네이버 지식백과 두산백과 wikipedia.org)
Celsius, Check, Create, Influence(+) ~
Positive Influence GRADE (PIG): C+