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맥카시-John McCarthy,교수,AI 창안자,USA
존 맥카시 (John McCarthy) 과학자, 전 대학교수
'인공지능'(Artificial Intelligence)용어 창안



[출생-사망]
1927년 9월 4일, 미국 - 2011년 10월 24일 (84세)

[5분]


[30분]


[경력사항]
1999 미국 컴퓨터 역사 박물관 회원
1962 미국 스탠포드대학교 인공지능연구실
1962 ~ 2000
미국 스탠포드대학교 교수
미국 매사추세츠공과대학교
미국 다트머스대학교
미국 스탠포드대학교
미국 프린스턴대학교



[학력사항]
프린스턴대학교 대학원 수학과 박사
~ 1948
캘리포니아공과대학교 수학과 학사

[추천 유튜브 동영상]


[수상내역]
2011 국제전기전자통신 명예의 전당
1991 미국 국가과학상
1988 교토상
1971 튜링상

[Recommended Youtube Video]


존 매카시(John McCarthy, 1927년 9월 4일 ~
2011년 10월 24일)는 미국의 전산학자이자 인지
과학자이다. 인공지능에 대한 연구 업적을 인정
받아 1971년 튜링상을 수상했다. 리스프 프로그
래밍 언어를 발명했으며, 1956년에 다트머스 학
회에서 처음으로 '인공지능'(Artificial
Intelligence)이라는 용어를 창안했다.



<수상 및 명예>
튜링상 (1971년)
교토상 (1988년)
미국 과학 훈장 (1990년)
컴퓨터 역사 박물관의 회원으로 입회 (1999년)
벤자민 프랭클린 메달 (2003년)
IEEE 인텔리전트 시스템의 AI의 명예의 전당
(2011년) - AI와 지능 체계 분야에 중대한 기여를 함
2012 스탠퍼드 엔지니어링 히어로즈의 한 명으로 이름을 올림

[추천 유튜브 동영상]


[주요 저서]
McCarthy, J. 1959. Programs with Common
Sense. In Proceedings of the Teddington
Conference on the Mechanization of Thought
Processes, 756-91. London: Her Majesty's
Stationery Office.
McCarthy, J. 1960. Recursive functions of
symbolic expressions and their computation
by machine. Communications of the ACM 3
(4):184-195.
McCarthy, J. 1963a A basis for a
mathematical theory of computation. In
Computer Programming and formal systems.
North-Holland.

[추천 유튜브 동영상]


McCarthy, J. 1963b. Situations, actions, and
causal laws. Technical report, Stanford
University.
McCarthy, J., and Hayes, P. J. 1969. Some
philosophical problems from the standpoint
of artificial intelligence. In Meltzer, B.,
and Michie, D., eds., Machine Intelligence
4. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. 463-502.
McCarthy, J. 1977. Epistemological problems
of artificial intelligence. In IJCAI, 1038-1044.
McCarthy, J. 1980. Circumscription: A form
of non-monotonic reasoning. Artificial
Intelligence 13(1-2):23-79.
McCarthy, J. 1986. Applications of
circumscription to common sense reasoning.
Artificial Intelligence 28(1):89-116.
McCarthy, J. 1990. Generality in artificial
intelligence. In Lifschitz, V., ed.,
Formalizing Common Sense. Ablex. 226-236.
McCarthy, J. 1993. Notes on formalizing
context. In IJCAI, 555-562.
McCarthy, J., and Buvac, S. 1997.
Formalizing context: Expanded notes. In
Aliseda, A.; van Glabbeek, R.; and
Westerstahl, D., eds., Computing Natural
Language. Stanford University. Also
available as Stanford Technical Note STAN-CS-TN-94-13.
McCarthy, J. 1998. Elaboration tolerance. In
Working Papers of the Fourth International
Symposium on Logical formalizations of
Commonsense Reasoning, Commonsense-1998.
Costello, T., and McCarthy, J. 1999. Useful
counterfactuals. Electronic Transactions on
Artificial Intelligence 3(A):51-76
McCarthy, J. 2002. Actions and other events
in situation calculus. In Fensel, D.;
Giunchiglia, F.; McGuinness, D.; and
Williams, M., eds., Proceedings of KR-2002, 615-628.



==========================================

John McCarthy

[Born] September 4, 1927
Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.

[Died] October 24, 2011 (aged 84)
Stanford, California, U.S.

[Residence] United States

[Nationality] American

[Fields] Computer technology

[Institutions]
Stanford University; Massachusetts Institute
of Technology; Dartmouth College; Princeton
University

[Alma mater]
Princeton University; California Institute
of Technology

[Doctoral advisor]
Solomon Lefschetz

[Doctoral students]
Ruzena Bajcsy
Randall Davis
Cordell Green
Ramanathan V. Guha
Barbara Liskov
Robert Moore
Francis Morris
Raj Reddy
Donald Kaplan
Eyal Amir
Aarati Parmar Martino

[Known for]
Artificial intelligence; Lisp;
Circumscription; Situation calculus

[Notable awards]
Turing Award (1971)
Computer Pioneer Award (1985)
IJCAI Award for Research Excellence (1985)
Kyoto Prize (1988)
National Medal of Science (1990)
Benjamin Franklin Medal (2003)

[Recommended Youtube Video]


John McCarthy (September 4, 1927~
October 24, 2011) was an American computer
scientist and cognitive scientist. McCarthy
was one of the founders of the discipline of
artificial intelligence. He coined the
term "artificial intelligence" (AI),
developed the Lisp programming language
family, significantly influenced the design
of the ALGOL programming language,
popularized timesharing, and was very
influential in the early development of AI.
McCarthy received many accolades and honors,
such as the Turing Award for his
contributions to the topic of AI, the United
States National Medal of Science, and the Kyoto Prize.

[Recommended Youtube Video]


[Personal life and education]
John McCarthy was born in Boston,
Massachusetts on September 4, 1927 to an
Irish immigrant father and a Lithuanian
Jewish immigrant mother,John Patrick and Ida
Glatt McCarthy. The family was obliged to
relocate frequently during the Great
Depression, until McCarthy's father found
work as an organizer for the Amalgamated
Clothing Workers in Los Angeles, California.

His father, John Patrick, came from the
fishing village of Cromane in County Kerry,
Ireland.His mother, Ida, passed away in 1957.
McCarthy was exceptionally intelligent, and
graduated from Belmont High School two years
early. He showed an early aptitude for
mathematics; during his teens he taught
himself college mathematics by studying the
textbooks used at the nearby California
Institute of Technology (Caltech). As a
result, when McCarthy was accepted into
Caltech in 1944, he was able to skip the
first two years of mathematics.

McCarthy was suspended from Caltech for
failure to attend physical education
courses; he then served in the US Army and
was readmitted, receiving a B.S. in
Mathematics in 1948. It was at Caltech
that he attended a lecture by John von
Neumann that inspired his future endeavors.
McCarthy initially continued his studies at
Caltech. He received a Ph.D. in Mathematics
from Princeton University in 1951 as a
student of Solomon Lefschetz.

[Recommended Youtube Video]


McCarthy was married three times. His second
wife was Vera Watson, a programmer and
mountaineer who died in 1978 attempting to
scale Annapurna I as part of an all-women
expedition organised by Arlene Blum. He
later married Carolyn Talcott, a computer
scientist at Stanford and later SRI
International.

McCarthy considered himself an atheist.
Raised as a Communist, after experiencing
the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia in
1968 he became a conservative Republican.
McCarthy died at his home in Stanford on
October 14, 2011.

(from naver.com wikipedia.org, 추천 유튜브 동영상,
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Computer, CA, Cognitive, Caltech, inluence(+)~
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