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배커스-John Backus, Computer Scientist, USA
존 배커스, John Backus, John Warner Backus
컴퓨터 과학자, 프로그래머


[출생] 1924년 12월 3일, 필라델피아

[사망] 2007년 3월 17일 (82세)

[분야] 컴퓨터 과학
[소속] IBM

~ 1949 컬럼비아대학교 대학원 수학 석사(M.S., 1950)
하버퍼드대학 의학
버지니아대학교 화학

IBM 명예연구원 1959 ~ 1963
IBM 연구소 선임연구원 1954 ~ 1959
IBM 프로그래밍연구팀 매니저 1950 ~ 1954
IBM 프로그래머


[주요 업적]
바쿠스-나우르 표기법
함수 수준 언어

미국 과학 훈장 (1975)
튜링상 (1977)
헤럴드 펜더 상 (1983)
찰스 스타크 드래이퍼 상 (1993)
컴퓨터 역사박물관 펠로우 (1997)

존 워너 배커스(John Warner Backus,
1924년 12월 3일 ~ 2007년 3월 17일)는 미국의
컴퓨터 과학자이다.
그는 최초로 널리 사용된 고급 프로그래밍 언어
(포트란, FORTRAN)를 발명한 팀을 이끌었고
형식 언어 문법을 정의하는 배커스-나우르 표기법
을 발명했다. 또, 그는 함수 수준의 프로그래밍
(function-level programming)를 연구하고 이를
대중화하는데 기여했다.

전기 전자 기술자 협회는 배커스에게 포트란 언어 개발의
공로로 말미암아 1967년 W.W McDowell Award를 수여했다.
배커스는 1975년 미국 국가 과학상을 받았고,
1977년에는 현실적인 고급 프로그래밍 체계의 설계에
뜻깊고 영향력 있는 지속적인 기여,
특히 포트란에 대한 그의 공로로 말미암아, 또
프로그래밍 언어들의 규격에 대한 형식 절차의
출판으로 말미암아 ACM 튜링상을 받았다.


John Backus

December 3, 1924
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

March 17, 2007 (aged 82)
Ashland, Oregon

Computer science

Alma mater
Columbia University (M.S., 1950)

[Known for]
Backus-Naur form
Function-level programming

National Medal of Science (1975)

ACM Turing Award (1977)
Harold Pender Award (1983)
Charles Stark Draper Prize (1993)
Computer History Museum Fellow (1997)

John Warner Backus (December 3, 1924 –
March 17, 2007) was an American computer
scientist. He directed the team that
invented the first widely used high-level
programming language (FORTRAN) and was the
inventor of the Backus-Naur form (BNF), a
widely used notation to define formal
language syntax. He also did research in
function-level programming and helped to
popularize it.

The IEEE awarded Backus the W. W. McDowell
Award in 1967 for the development of FORTRAN.
He received the National Medal of
Science in 1975, and the 1977 ACM Turing
Award “for profound, influential, and
lasting contributions to the design of
practical high-level programming systems,
notably through his work on FORTRAN, and for
publication of formal procedures for the
specification of programming languages."

[Life and career]
Backus was born in Philadelphia and grew up
in nearby Wilmington, Delaware. He
studied at The Hill School in Pottstown,
Pennsylvania, and was apparently not a
diligent student. After entering the
University of Virginia to study chemistry,
he quit and was conscripted into the U.S.
Army. He began medical training at
Haverford College and, during an
internship at a hospital, he was diagnosed
with a cranial bone tumor, which was
successfully removed; a plate was installed
in his head, and he ended medical training
after nine months and a subsequent operation
to replace the plate with one of his own design.

After moving to New York City he trained
initially as a radio technician and became
interested in mathematics. He graduated from
Columbia University with a master's degree
in mathematics in 1949, and joined IBM in
1950. During his first three years, he
worked on the Selective Sequence Electronic
Calculator (SSEC); his first major project
was to write a program to calculate
positions of the Moon. In 1953 Backus
developed the language Speedcoding, the
first high-level language created for an IBM
computer, to aid in software development for
the IBM 701 computer.

Programming was very difficult at this time,
and in 1954 Backus assembled a team to
define and develop Fortran for the IBM 704
computer. Fortran was the first high-level
programming language to be put to broad use.
Backus made another, critical contribution
to early computer science: during the latter
part of the 1950s Backus served on the
international committees that developed
ALGOL 58 and the very influential ALGOL 60,
which quickly became the de facto worldwide
standard for publishing algorithms. Backus
developed the Backus-Naur Form (BNF), in the
UNESCO report on ALGOL 58. It was a formal
notation able to describe any context-free
programming language, and was important in
the development of compilers. This
contribution helped Backus win the Turing Award.

The Backus Normal Form was discovered
independently by John Backus;
Panini, a grammarian from India
who lived sometime between the 4th and 7th
century BCE, presented a notation which is
equivalent in its power to that of Backus
and has many similar properties.
Backus later worked on a "function-level"
programming language known as FP which was
described in his Turing Award lecture "Can
Programming be Liberated from the von
Neumann Style?". Sometimes viewed as
Backus's apology for creating FORTRAN, this
paper did less to garner interest in the FP
language than to spark research into
functional programming in general.

An FP interpreter was distributed with the 4.2BSD
Unix operating system. FP was strongly
inspired by Kenneth E. Iverson’s APL, even
using a non-standard character set. Backus
spent the latter part of his career
developing FL (from "Function Level"), a
successor to FP. FL was an internal IBM
research project, and development of the
language essentially stopped when the
project was finished (only a few papers
documenting it remain), but many of the
language's innovative, arguably important
ideas have now been implemented in versions
of the J programming language.
Backus was named an IBM Fellow in 1963,and
was awarded a degree honoris causa from the
Henri Poincaré University in Nancy
(France) in 1989 and a Draper Prize in 1993.
He retired in 1991 and died at his home in
Ashland, Oregon on March 17, 2007.


Computer scientist,Columbia university,Calculator ~
(PIG: time-variant)

Positive Influence GRADE (PIG): C

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