Phone 리치 Dennis Ritchie
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리치-Dennis MacAlistair Ritchie, 전산학자, USA
데니스 매캘리스테어 리치
(Dennis MacAlistair Ritchie), 공학기술자

Dennis MacAlistair Ritchie, 전산학자

[출생-사망] 1941년 9월 9일, 미국 -
2011년 10월 12일

하버드대학교 대학원 박사
~ 1967 하버드대학교 물리학, 응용수학 학사

~ 2007 미국 루슨트 테크놀러지스 시스템소프트
웨어 연구부 부장
미국 벨연구소 컴퓨터연구센터 연구원

1998 국립기술혁신메달
1983 튜링상

[출생] 1941년 9월 9일
미국 뉴욕 브롱스빌
[사망] 2011년 10월 12일 (70세)
미국 뉴저지 버클리 헤이츠
[국적] 미국인
[분야] 컴퓨터 과학
루슨트 테크놀로지
벨 연구소
[출신 대학]
하버드 대학교 (Ph.D., 1968)

[주요 업적]
B (프로그래밍 언어)
C (프로그래밍 언어)

튜링상 (1983)
미국 국가 기술혁신 메달 (1998)
IEEE 리처드 W. 해밍 메달 (1990)
컴퓨터 파이오니어 상 (1994)
컴퓨터 역사박물관 Fellow (1997)[1]
헤럴드 펜더 상 (2003)
일본국제상 (2011)

데니스 매캘리스테어 리치
(Dennis MacAlistair Ritchie)
(1941년 9월 9일 ~ 2011년 10월 12일)
C와 유닉스를 개발한 것으로 유명한 전산학자이
자 현대 컴퓨터의 선구자이다.

미국의 뉴욕, 브롱스빌(Bronxville)에서 태
어났으며. 하버드 대학교에서 물리학과 응
용수학 학위를 얻었다(1967). 1968년부터
벨 연구소 컴퓨터 연구 센터에서 일했으
며, 루슨트 테크놀로지스의 시스템 소프트
웨어 연구부장으로 2007년도에 은퇴했다.

미국시각으로 2011년 10월 12일, 그는 홀
로 살고 있던 버클리하이츠의 자택에서 사
망한 채로 발견되었다 (향년 71세).

켄 톰슨(Ken Thompson) 등과 함께 최초의
유닉스(Unix) 시스템을 개발했고, 1971년
최초의 〈Unix Programmer's Manual〉을 썼
다. 또한 C 언어를 개발한 후 브라이언 커
니핸과 함께 〈C 프로그래밍 언어〉(The C
Programming Language)를 기술했다. 커니핸
과 〈C 프로그래밍 언어〉책을 썼기에 커니
핸이 C 언어 개발에 참여한 것으로 종종 오
해받으나 커니핸의 말에 따르면 자신은 C언
어 개발에 참여하지 않았다고 한다.

그는 ALTRAN, B언어, BCPL, Multics 등의
개발에도 영향을 끼친 것으로도 알려져 있

그는 1983년에 켄 톰프슨과 "범용 운영체
제 이론개발, 특히 유닉스 운영체제의 구현
에 대한 공로"로 튜링상을 수상했다.

미국의 경제 전문지 '비즈니스 인사이더'에
서는 '현재의 애플 컴퓨터는 거의 모두 데
니스 리치의 업적에 기반하고 있다'이라며
그의 업적을 평가했다. 현재 애플 매킨
토시의 OS X와 아이폰의 iOS는 모두 유닉
스 운영 체제를 기반으로 만들어져 있다.

〈C 프로그래밍 언어〉 (The C Programming
Language) (1978년 브라이언 커니핸과 공저)
〈Unix Programmer's Manual〉 (1971년)

[Born] September 9, 1941
Bronxville, New York, U.S.

[Died] c. October 12, 2011 (aged 70)
Berkeley Heights, New Jersey, U.S.

[Nationality] American

[Fields] Computer science

Lucent Technologies
Bell Labs

[Alma mater]
Harvard University (Ph.D., 1968)

[Known for]

[Notable awards]
Turing Award (1983)
National Medal of Technology (1998)
IEEE Richard W. Hamming Medal (1990)
Computer Pioneer Award (1994)
Computer History Museum Fellow (1997)
Harold Pender Award (2003)
Japan Prize

Dennis MacAlistair Ritchie (September
9, 1941 – c. October 12, 2011)
was an American computer
scientist. He created the C
programming language and, with long-
time colleague Ken Thompson, the Unix
operating system. Ritchie and
Thompson received the Turing Award from
the ACM in 1983, the Hamming Medal from
the IEEE in 1990 and the National Medal
of Technology from President Clinton in
1999. Ritchie was the head of Lucent
Technologies System Software Research
Department when he retired in 2007. He
was the "R" in K&R C, and commonly
known by his username dmr.

[Personal life]
Ritchie was born in Bronxville, New
York. His father was Alistair E.
Ritchie, a longtime Bell Labs scientist
and co-author of The Design of
Switching Circuits on switching circuit
theory. He moved with his family to
Summit, New Jersey, as a child, where
he graduated from Summit High School.
He graduated from Harvard
University with degrees in physics and
applied mathematics.

Version 7 Unix for the PDP-11,
including Dennis Ritchie's home
directory: /usr/dmr
In 1967, Ritchie began working at the
Bell Labs Computing Sciences Research
Center, and in 1968, he defended his
PhD thesis on "Program Structure and
Computational Complexity" at Harvard
under the supervision of Patrick C.
Fischer. However, Ritchie never
officially received his PhD degree.

Ritchie was best known as the creator
of the C programming language, a key
developer of the Unix operating system,
and co-author of the book The C
Programming Language, and was the 'R'
in K&R (a common reference to the
book's authors Kernighan and Ritchie).
Ritchie worked together with Ken
Thompson, the scientist credited with
writing the original Unix; one of
Ritchie's most important contributions
to Unix was its porting to different
machines and platforms. They were so
influential on Research Unix that Doug
McIlroy later wrote, "The names of
Ritchie and Thompson may safely be
assumed to be attached to almost
everything not otherwise attributed."

The C language is widely used today in
application, operating system, and
embedded system development, and its
influence is seen in most modern
programming languages. Unix has also
been influential, establishing concepts
and principles that are now precepts of

Ritchie has described a 1970s
collaboration with James Reeds and
Robert Morris on a ciphertext-only
attack on the M-209 US cipher machine
that could solve messages of at least
2000–2500 letters. Ritchie
relates that, after discussions with
the NSA, the authors decided not to
publish it, as they were told the
principle was applicable to machines
then still in use by foreign

[Views on computing]
In an interview from 1999, Dennis
Ritchie clarifies that he sees Linux
and BSD operating systems as a
continuation of the basis of the Unix
operating system, and as derivatives of

I think the Linux phenomenon is quite
delightful, because it draws so
strongly on the basis that Unix
provided. Linux seems to be among the
healthiest of the direct Unix
derivatives, though there are also the
various BSD systems as well as the more
official offerings from the workstation
and mainframe manufacturers.

In the same interview, he states that
he views both Unix and Linux as "the
continuation of ideas that were started
by Ken and me and many others, many
years ago."

In 1983, Ritchie and Thompson received
the Turing Award for their development
of generic operating systems theory and
specifically for the implementation of
the UNIX operating system. Ritchie's
Turing Award lecture was
titled "Reflections on Software
Research". In 1990, both Ritchie
and Thompson received the IEEE Richard
W. Hamming Medal from the Institute of
Electrical and Electronics Engineers
(IEEE), "for the origination of the
UNIX operating system and the C
programming language".

In 1997, both Ritchie and Thompson were
made Fellows of the Computer History
Museum, "for co-creation of the UNIX
operating system, and for development
of the C programming language."

On April 21, 1999, Thompson and Ritchie
jointly received the National Medal of
Technology of 1998 from President Bill
Clinton for co-inventing the UNIX
operating system and the C programming
language which, according to the
citation for the medal, "led to
enormous advances in computer hardware,
software, and networking systems and
stimulated growth of an entire
industry, thereby enhancing American
leadership in the Information Age".

In 2005, the Industrial Research
Institute awarded Ritchie with its
Achievement Award in recognition of his
contribution to science and technology,
and to society generally, with his
development of the Unix operating

In 2011, Ritchie, along with Thompson,
was awarded the Japan Prize for
Information and Communications for his
work in the development of the Unix
operating system.

[Death and legacy]
Dennis Ritchie with Doug McIlroy
(left) in May 2011
Ritchie was found dead on October 12,
2011, at the age of 70 at his home in
Berkeley Heights, New Jersey, where he
lived alone. First news of his death
came from his former colleague, Rob
Pike. The cause and exact time of
death have not been disclosed. He
had been in frail health for several
years following treatment for prostate
cancer and heart disease.
His death came a week after the death
of Steve Jobs but did not receive as
much media coverage.
Following Ritchie's death, computer
historian Paul E. Ceruzzi stated:

Ritchie was under the radar. His name
was not a household name at all, but...
if you had a microscope and could look
in a computer, you'd see his work
everywhere inside.

In an interview shortly after Ritchie's
death, long time colleague Brian
Kernighan said Ritchie never expected C
to be so significant. Kernighan
reminded readers of how important a
role C and UNIX had played in the
development of later high-profile
projects, such as the iPhone.
Other testimonials to his influence

The Fedora 16 Linux distribution, which
was released about a month after he
died, was dedicated to his memory.
FreeBSD 9.0, released January 12, 2012
was also dedicated in his memory.


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