CCG 비스마르크 Otto von Bisma
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비스마르크-Otto von Bismarck,19c수상,Germany
비스마르크 (Otto Eduard Leopold von Bismarck)



[출생] 1815년 4월 1일
프로이센 쇤하우젠(Schoenhausen)

[사망] 1898년 7월 30일 (83세)
독일 제국 함부르크 근처 프리드
리히스루(Friedrichsruh)

[국적]
프로이센, 독일 제국
[학력]
괴팅겐 대학교 중퇴, 베를린 훔볼트 대학교 졸업.
[직업] 정치가, 수상
[종교] 루터교
[배우자]
요하나 폰 푸트카머



오토 에두아르트 레오폴트 폰 비스마르크
(Otto Eduard Leopold von Bismarck, 1815
년 4월 1일 ~ 1898년 7월 30일)는 독일을
통일하여 독일 제국을 건설한 프로이센의
외교관이자 정치인이다.

프로이센 쇤하우젠에서 융커의 아들로 태어
났다. 괴팅겐 대학과 베를린 대학에서 법학
을 공부하였고, 이후 공무원으로 근무하다
1847년 프로이센 의회의원에 당선되어 정계
에 진출하였다. 1848년 베를린에서 혁명이
일어나자, 그는 반(反)혁명파로 활동하였
고, 1851년 프랑크푸르트에서 열린 독일연
방의회에 프로이센 대표로 참석, 이때부터
비스마르크는 독일통일을 위해서는 '오스트
리아를 배제해야 한다'는 '소(小)독일주
의' 통일관을 가지게 되었다. 이후 러시아
주재 대사와 프랑스 주재 대사를 거치면서
국제적 외교감각을 지닌 정치인으로 성장하였다.

1862년 빌헬름 1세의 지명으로 재상
(kanzler)에 취임하였다. 재상취임 후 첫연
설에서 군비확장을 주장한 《철혈정책》연
설로 큰 반향을 일으켰다. 철혈정책에 따
라 의회의 반대를 무릅쓰고 군비를 확장하
여 1864년 덴마크를, 1866년 오스트리아를
제압하였고 이후 일으킨 프랑스-프로이센
전쟁(1870년-1871년)에서 승리하여 독일 제
국을 선포, 통일을 이룩하였다.

이후 비스마르크는 1871년-1890년까지 독일
제국의 제국재상(Reichskanzler)으로서 유
럽 외교무대를 주도하면서 강대국 간의 세
력균형을 유지하기위해 노력했다. 3제 동
맹, 독일-오스트리아 동맹, 3국 동맹, 이중
보호조약 등 수 많은 동맹과 협상관계를 체
결하였고, 1877년 러시아-투르크 전쟁이 발
발하자 베를린 회의를 주재하여 '공정한 중
재자' 역할을 하였다. 국내적으로 1872년부
터 남부독일의 카톨릭교도를 억압하기 위
한 문화투쟁을 벌였으며, 1878년 '사회주의
자 진압법'을 제정하여 사회주의 탄압에 나
섰으나 성과를 거두지는 못하였다.



독일의 자본주의 발전과 식민지 획득을 장
려하여 아프리카에 독일 식민지를 획득하
는 데 공헌을 하기도 하였다. 1890년 빌헬
름 2세와의 정책 갈등으로 사직, 정계은퇴
를 하였다. 1898년 7월 30일 사망했다.

비스마르크는 일찍이 그의 정치가로서의 경
력에 있어 독일 통일의 기회가 있을 것임
을 인식했고 하나의 통일국가로서 프로이센
을 준비시키는 데 성공했다. 다른 한편으
로 그의 1871년 독일제국은 민주주의를 신
중하게 제한했으며, 그는 1870년대와 1880
년대에 걸쳐서 반(反)-가톨릭과 반(反)-사
회주의 법률을 만들었으나 성공하지 못했
고 이로 인해 독일 정치 문화에 불신과 분
열이라는 파괴적인 유산을 남겼다.



=======================================
1st Chancellor of Germany

[In office]
21 March 1871 – 20 March 1890

Minister President of Prussia
[In office] 9 November 1873 ~ 20 March 1890

Chancellor of the North German
Confederation
[In office]
1 July 1867 – 21 March 1871

Foreign Minister of Prussia
[In office]
23 November 1862 ~ 20 March 1890

[Personal details]
[Born] 1 April 1815
Schonhausen, Prussia
(in modern Saxony-Anhalt, Germany)
[Died]
30 July 1898 (aged 83)
Friedrichsruh, Schleswig-Holstein,
German Empire

[Political party]
Independent
[Spouse(s)]
Johanna von Puttkamer
(1847–1894; her death)
[Children]
Marie
Herbert
Wilhelm
[Alma mater]
University of Gottingen
University of Berlin
University of Greifswald
[Profession] Lawyer
[Religion] Lutheranism

Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince of
Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg
(1 April 1815 ~ 30 July 1898), known as Otto von
Bismarck, was a conservative Prussian
statesman who dominated German and
European affairs from the 1860s until
1890. In the 1860s he engineered a
series of wars that unified the German
states, significantly and deliberately
excluding Austria, into a powerful
German Empire under Prussian
leadership. With that accomplished by
1871 he skillfully used balance of
power diplomacy to preserve German
hegemony in a Europe which, despite
many disputes and war scares, remained
at peace. For historian Eric Hobsbawm,
it was Bismarck who "remained
undisputed world champion at the game
of multilateral diplomatic chess for
almost twenty years after 1871, [and]
devoted himself exclusively, and
successfully, to maintaining peace
between the powers."

In 1862, King Wilhelm I appointed
Bismarck as Minister President of
Prussia, a position he would hold until
1890 (except for a short break in
1873). He provoked three short,
decisive wars against Denmark, Austria,
and France, aligning the smaller German
states behind Prussia in defeating his
arch-enemy France. In 1871 he formed
the German Empire with himself as
Chancellor, while retaining control of
Prussia. His diplomacy of realpolitik
and powerful rule at home gained him
the nickname the "Iron Chancellor."
German unification and its rapid
economic growth was the foundation to
his foreign policy. He disliked
colonialism but reluctantly built an
overseas empire when it was demanded by
both elite and mass opinion. Juggling a
very complex interlocking series of
conferences, negotiations and
alliances, he used his diplomatic
skills to maintain Germany's position
and used the balance of power to keep
Europe at peace in the 1870s and 1880s.

He was a master of complex politics at
home. He created the first welfare
state in the modern world, with the
goal of gaining working class support
that might otherwise go to his
Socialist enemies. In the 1870s he
allied himself with the Liberals (who
were low-tariff and anti-Catholic) and
fought the Catholic Church in what was
called the Kulturkampf ("culture
struggle"). He lost that battle as the
Catholics responded by forming a
powerful Centre party and using
universal male suffrage to gain a bloc
of seats. Bismarck then reversed
himself, ended the Kulturkampf, broke
with the Liberals, imposed protective
tariffs, and formed a political
alliance with the Centre Party to fight
the Socialists. A devout Lutheran, he
was loyal to his king, who argued with
Bismarck but in the end supported him
against the advice of his wife and his
heir. While the Reichstag, Germany's
parliament, was elected by universal
male suffrage, it did not have much
control of government policy. Bismarck
distrusted democracy and ruled through
a strong, well-trained bureaucracy with
power in the hands of a traditional
Junker elite that comprised the landed
nobility. Under Wilhelm I, Bismarck
largely controlled domestic and foreign
affairs, until he was removed by young
Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1890, at the age of 75.

Bismarck, a Junker himself, was strong-
willed, outspoken and sometimes
overbearing, but he could also be
polite, charming and witty.
Occasionally he displayed a violent
temper, and he kept his power by
melodramatically threatening
resignation time and again, which
frightened Wilhelm I. He possessed not
only a long-term national and
international vision but also the short-
term ability to juggle complex
developments. As the leader of what
historians call "revolutionary
conservatism," Bismarck became a hero
to German nationalists; they built many
monuments honoring the founder of the
new Reich. Many historians praise him
as a visionary who was instrumental in
uniting Germany and, once that had been
done, kept the peace in Europe through
adroit diplomacy.

A recent biographer of Bismarck wrote
that he was a political genius of a very unusual
kind [whose success] rested on several
sets of conflicting characteristics
among which brutal, disarming honesty
mingled with the wiles and deceits of a
confidence man. He played his parts
with perfect self-confidence, yet mixed
them with rage, anxiety, illness,
hypochrondria, and irrationality. ...
He used democracy when it suited him,
negotiated with revolutionaries and the
dangerous Ferdinand Lassalle, the
socialist who might have contested his
authority. He utterly dominated his
cabinet ministers with a sovereign
contempt and blackened their
reputations as soon as he no longer
needed them. He outwitted the
parliamentary parties, even the
strongest of them, and betrayed all
those ... who had put him into power.
By 1870 even his closest friends ...
realized that they had helped put a
demonic figure into power.

(from naver.com wikipedia.org)


Chancellor, Confederation, Center, Complex politics ~
(PIG: time-variant)

Positive Influence GRADE (PIG): C


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