Name 워커 Walton Walker
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워커-Harris Walton Walker, (미)육군대장, USA
[생애] 1889년 12월 3일 ~
1950년 12월 23일 (61세)


[출생지] 미국 텍사스 주 벨턴
[사망지] 대한민국 경기도 양주군 노해면
(현, 서울시 도봉구 도봉동)


[복무] 미국 육군
[복무 기간] 1904년 ~ 1950년
[최종 계급] 대장
[근무] 5 보병 사단
[지휘]
3 기갑 사단, 20 군단, 5 군, 8 군
[주요 참전]
미국의 베라크루스 점령
세계 1차 대전
세계 2차 대전
한국 전쟁
[서훈 내역]
수훈십자장 (2)
순훈십자훈장 (2)
은성 훈장 (3)
레이옹 오브 메리트
수훈비행십자장 (2)
동성 훈장
항공 훈장 (14)

해리스 월턴 워커(Harris Walton Walker,
1889년 12월 3일 ~ 1950년 12월 23일(61세))는
미국의 육군 군인이다.


[생애]
[초기]
1889년 12월 3일 텍사스 주 벨턴에서 태어
났다. 1912년 웨스트 포인트를 졸업한 뒤,
프레드릭 펀스턴 준장 아래에서 베라크루스
에 원정을, 그리고 미국 맥시코 간의 국경
을 순찰하였다. 미국이 제1차 세계대전에
참전하게 되자, 5 보병 사단 기관총대대 중
대장으로 참전하였으며, 은성 훈장을 수여
받았다. 종전 이후, 중국과 지휘 및 참모
학교, 웨스트 포인트와 기타, 그리고 1930
년에는 조지 마셜이 이끄는 보병 여단에서
집행 장교로서 근무하였다.


[제2차 세계 대전]
제2차 세계대전이 발발하자, 월턴 워커 소장은
3 기갑 사단장으로서 유럽 전선에 참전하였다.

조지 패튼 장군 휘하에서 20 군단장으로 임명되어
진격하였다. 워커 장군은 당시 북아프리카 전투에서
독일 제3제국 국방군의 롬멜부대와 맞서 공훈을
세우고 중장으로 승진하였다.

종전 후, 5 군 사령관직을 거쳐 1948년 주일(駐日)
8 군 사령관으로 임명되었다.

[한국 전쟁]
1950년 6월 25일 북한에 의해 한국 전쟁이
발발하자, 미 극동군사령관 더글러스 맥아더 원수는
워커 중장에게 주일 미 제8군의 "제24사단을 한국으로
이동시키라."라는 명령을 하달(1950년 6월 30일)하였다.
월턴 워커 중장은 7월 13일 한반도로 파견되었다.

"우리는 더 이상 물러설 수 없고, 더 이상
물러설 곳도 없다. 무슨 일이 있어도 결코
후퇴란 있을 수 없다."
— 《낙동강 방어선을 사수하라고
부하들에게게 명령하면서》

"내가 여기서 죽더라도 끝까지 한국을 지키겠다."
— 《낙동강 전선 시찰 도중 차출된 국군들과 함께》

"여기서 더 후퇴하면 내가 장례식을 치뤄주지 !!"
《1950년 7월 29일 낙동강 전선 시찰 후》

대한민국에 부임 당시 미숙했던 장병들만으
로 극도로 불리했던 낙동강 전선을 사수하
면서 그는 낙동강 방어선에서 죽는 한이 있
어도 무조건 방어하라고 부하들에게 명령했
다. 이에 한 부하가 반론을 제기하자,
옆에 있던 더글라스 맥아더가 "군대에는 민
주주의가 없다." 라는 말로 워커 중장의
지휘명령을 옹호해줬다. 이후 한반도에 상륙한
타흐신 야즈즈가 이끄는 터키 지원군의 지원을 받아,
낙동강 방어선을 방어해냈다.


[죽음]
1950년 12월 23일, 훗날 육군 대장이 되는
아들인 샘 S. 워커 대위의 은성 무공 훈장
수상을 축하해주기 위해 가던 중 의정부 남
쪽의 양주군 노해면(현재 서울특별시 도봉
구 도봉동 자리)에서 교통 사고로 죽었다.
그가 타고 있던 지휘관 지프는 빠른 속도
로 움직이는 민간인 차량을 피하다가 굴러
떨어졌으며, 시신은 아들에 의해 수습되어
미국 본토로 보내졌다. 이듬해 1951년 1월
2일, 알린턴 국립 묘지에서 화장되었으며,
대장으로 추서되었다.

월튼 워커 중장의 죽음으로
공석이 된 8군 사령관직은
매슈 리지웨이 중장이 후임으로 취임하였
다.

[가족]
그의 외아들 샘 S. 워커 대위는 한국전쟁
당시 맨 앞에서 진두지휘하며 전투에 참여했다.
이후, 샘 워커 대위는 미국의 군사 역사상 최연소
대장으로 진급하게 된다.


이로 인하여 미육군 역사상 유일하게
아버지와 아들이 나란히 대장에 진급되는
영광을 누리게 된다.
==========================================
Harris Walton Walker

[Birth name]
Walton Harris Walker
[Nickname(s)] "Johnnie"
[Born] December 3, 1889
Belton, Texas
[Died] December 23, 1950 (aged 61),
near Uijeongbu, South Korea
[Place of burial]
Arlington National Cemetery
[Allegiance]
United States of America
[Service/branch]
United States Army
[Years of service]
1912 – 1950
[Rank] General
[Unit] 5th Infantry Division
[Commands held]
3rd Armored Division
US Fifth Army patch.svg Fifth Army
Eighth Army
[Battles/wars]
Veracruz (1914)
World War I
World War II
Invasion of Normandy
Battle of the Bulge
[Korean War] Pusan Perimeter

[Awards]
Distinguished Service Cross (2)
Distinguished Service Medal (2)
Silver Star (3)
Legion of Merit
Distinguished Flying Cross (2)
Bronze Star
Air Medal (12)
Army Commendation Medal
[Relations]
General Sam S. Walker (son)


Walton Harris Walker (December 3, 1889
– December 23, 1950) was a United
States Army general (promoted
posthumously to four-star rank) who was
the first commander of the Eighth
United States Army in Korea at the
beginning of the Korean War. He died in
a jeep accident in South Korea on
December 23, 1950. Walker also was a
commander in World War I and II.

[Early life]
Walker was born in Belton, Texas on
December 3, 1889. His parents, Sam and
Lydia Walker were both college
graduates whose fathers had been
officers in the Confederate Army. His
father, a merchant, taught him how to
ride a horse and to hunt and shoot. He
graduated from the Wedemeyer Academy
(established 1886-1911) in Belton.

[United States Army career]
He entered Virginia Military Institute
(VMI) in 1907 and then transferred and
graduated from West Point in 1912. As a
lieutenant, he served in the Vera Cruz
expedition under Brigadier General
Frederick Funston. Patrolling on the
U.S.-Mexican border in 1916, he
developed a close friendship with
Dwight Eisenhower.

[World War I]
During World War I, Walker fought in
France with the 5th Infantry Division
and was awarded the Silver Star for
gallantry in action.

After World War I, Walker rotated
through a variety of assignments,
including service in China, Command and
General Staff School at Fort
Leavenworth, Kansas, and teaching
duties in several posts, including West
Point. In the 1930s he served as
executive officer of an infantry
brigade commanded by George Marshall,
the future Army Chief of Staff.

[World War II]
When hostilities broke out in Europe in
1939, Walker was executive of the War
Plans division of the general staff,
but when Marshall (now Chief of Staff)
assigned George Patton to organize
America's armored forces, Walker
successfully lobbied Marshall for a
post as one of Patton's subordinate
commanders, gaining promotion to
brigadier general in the process.
Promoted major general in 1942, he
commanded Third Armored Division and
eventually XX Corps, taking the latter
to England in early 1944 and leading it
into combat in Normandy in July as part
of Patton's Third Army.

Walker's XX Corps played a role in
Patton's dash across France in August
and early September 1944, earning the
sobriquet "Ghost Corps" for the speed
of its advance. Walker's troops saw
heavy fighting in France and Germany
during the remainder of the war,
especially at Metz, the Battle of the
Bulge, and in the invasion of Germany.
In the spring of 1945 XX Corps
liberated Buchenwald concentration camp
then pushed south and east, eventually
reaching Linz, Austria by May. Walker
received his third star at this time,
making him a Lieutenant-General.

[Post-World War II]
After the war Walker became commander
of Fifth Army, headquartered in
Chicago, but in 1948, was assigned as
commanding general of the Eighth Army,
the American occupation force in Japan.
Walker was ordered by General Douglas
MacArthur, the Supreme Allied Commander
in Japan, to restore the depleted Army
to combat-worthy condition.

[Korean War]
Shortly after the North Korean invasion
of South Korea on June 25, 1950, the
Eighth Army was ordered to intervene
and drive the invaders back across the
38th parallel, the border between the
two countries. With only four lightly
equipped and poorly trained divisions,
Walker began landing troops on the
southeast side of the Korean peninsula
in July. After his lead units, elements
of the 24th Infantry Division
(including the ill-fated Task Force
Smith), were virtually destroyed in a
few days of furious fighting between
Osan and Taejon, Walker realized his
assigned mission was impossible and
went on the defensive. Pushed steadily
back towards the southeast by the North
Korean advance, Walker's forces
suffered heavy losses and for a time
were unable to form a defensible front,
even after bringing the 1st Cavalry and
25th Infantry Divisions into the fight.

Walker's situation was not helped by
unrealistic demands from MacArthur in
Tokyo not to retreat an inch.
Attempting to obey, Walker gave a
bombastic "not a step back" speech to
his staff and subordinate commanders
which did not go over well. Nor did it
stop the North Koreans from pushing
back the Americans and the Republic of
Korea Army (ROK), which had been badly
mauled in the opening days of the
invasion, even further.

As American and ROK forces retreated
further east and south, they finally
arrived at a defensible line on the
Nakdong River. They took advantage of
shortened supply routes and a
relatively good road network to exploit
the advantages of "interior lines".
Walker was able to quickly shift his
units from point to point, stopping
North Korean attacks before they could
be reinforced. A critical advantage
General Walker had was that military
intelligence had cracked the North
Korean radio codes. So Walker knew
every major North Korean Army movement
prior to the event. Walker kept his
main units deployed on the front lines
but he kept Army and Marine units as a
mobile reserve and with his ability to
read North Korean intentions he could
rush in reinforcements to plug any
local breaks in the line on short
notice. His advance knowledge of enemy
movements also allowed him to be able
to employ artillery and airpower to
great effect. American forces gradually
solidified this defensive position on
the southeast side of the Korean
peninsula, dubbed the "Pusan
Perimeter". Walker received
reinforcements, including the
Provisional Marine Brigade, which he
used along with the Army's 27th
Infantry Regiment as "fire brigades,"
reliable troops who specialized in
counterattacking and wiping out enemy
penetrations.

As more reinforcements arrived, the
combat advantage shifted toward the
American and South Korean forces. North
Korean forces had suffered terribly and
their supply lines were under constant
aerial bombardment. Almost all of their
T-34 tanks, which spearheaded the
invasion, had been destroyed. Walker
ordered local counterattacks while
planning for a large scale breakout in
conjunction with MacArthur's Inchon
landing in September.

With MacArthur's amphibious flanking
move, the North Koreans seemed trapped
but Walker's rapid advance northwest
towards Inchon and Seoul emphasized
speed over maneuver and made no attempt
to encircle and destroy the North
Koreans after punching through their
lines. Although thousands of prisoners
were taken, many North Korean units
successfully disengaged from the
fighting, melting away into the
interior of South Korea where they
would conduct a guerrilla war for two
years. Others escaped all the way back
to North Korea.

With the war apparently won, Walker's
Eighth Army quickly moved north and,
with the independent X Corps on its
right, crossed the 38th parallel to
occupy North Korea. Fighting tapered
off to sporadic, sharp clashes with
remnants of North Korean forces. By
late October 1950 the Eighth Army was
nearing the Yalu River, North Korea's
border with China. Walker, informed by
MacArthur's headquarters that the
Chinese would not intervene, did not
insure that his troops maintained
watchful security. Due to a lack of
coordination between Walker, General
Edward Almond, Commander of the X
Corps, and MacArthur's headquarters in
Tokyo, a gap had opened between Eighth
Army and X Corps as they moved close to
the Chinese border. Eventually, the
weather had turned savagely cold, and
most American units had no training and
inadequate equipment for the bitter
temperatures.

Contrary to MacArthur's expectations,
the Chinese intervened in force; first
in a series of ambushes, then in
sporadic night attacks, and finally in
an all-out offensive in which large
Chinese forces infiltrated the lines,
taking advantage of the American
failure to take basic security
measures, and the large intervals
between American and South Korean units
and between the Eighth Army and the X
Corps. From late October until the
beginning of December in 1950, the
Chinese killed or captured thousands of
American and ROK soldiers, decimating
the 2nd Infantry Division and forcing
Walker into a desperate retreat.

By early December, using his superior
mobility Walker successfully broke
contact with the Chinese, withdrawing
south to a position around Pyongyang,
the capital of North Korea. Without
instructions from MacArthur's
headquarters, Walker decided that
Eighth Army was too battered to defend
Pyongyang and ordered the retreat
resumed to below the 38th parallel.

[Death]
General Walker was killed in a military
connected traffic accident on December
23, 1950, near Uijeongbu, South Korea,
when his command jeep collided with a
civilian truck at high speed as he
inspected US military positions north
of Seoul.

His body was escorted back to the
United States by his son, future US
Army General Sam Sims Walker, then a
battalion commander with the 19th
Infantry Regiment, known as "The Rock
of Chickamauga", who was also serving
in Korea.

General Walker was interred in Section
34 of Arlington National Cemetery on
January 2, 1951.

[Legacy and honors]
Promoted posthumously to 4-star
General, Walker's memory was much
honored in the years immediately
following the Korean War. The Army
chose his name (and his other
nickname), for its next light tank, the
M41 Walker Bulldog. Dallas, Texas,
named the western segment of Texas
State Highway Loop 12 after him (the
portion going through neighboring
Irving, Texas continues the naming
convention). One of the largest Armed
Forces Recreation Center's hotels, the
General Walker Hotel in Berchtesgaden
(now demolished), was also named in his
honor. Camp Walker in Daegu, ROK is
named in his honor.

The M41 Tank was already nicknamed the
Little Bulldog before Gen. Walker's
death and Army retained Bulldog as part
of the new nickname for the M41 Tank,
while dropping the word little.

In 1963, South Korea President Park
Chung-hee honored the general by naming
a hill in the southern part of Seoul
after Walker. Today, Walker Hill is the
site of the Sheraton Walker Hill, a
five-star international resort and
hotel, and Walker Hill Apartment in
Gwangjin-Gu. In December 2009, the
mayor of Dobong-gu district, Choi Sun-
Kil, unveiled the Walton Harris Walker
monument to mark the site of his death.
The memorial, which is near Dobong
subway Station, pays tribute to Walker
and to all those who defended South
Korea in the Korean War.

Walker Intermediate School, located on
the Ft. Knox Army Garrison, opened in
1962 and is named in his honor. His
picture hangs in the school lobby.

A biography of Walker was published in
2008 called "General Walton H. Walker:
Forgotten Hero-The Man Who Saved
Korea", by Charles M. Province.

Little known but of particular interest
to many is the fact that General Walker
was of 'mixed ethnicity', most likely
including Native American and/or
African-American ancestry.
(U.S. National Archives document,
DCAS,KS.EXT08.DAT)

(from naver.com wikipedia.org)


Cross,Commander,Confederate army,Chicago,Combat,Command jeep Collided ~
(PIG: time-variant)

Positive Influence GRADE (PIG): C+


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