Name 박경리 朴景利
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박경리-朴景利, 소설가, Pak Kyongni, Korea
박경리 朴景利 Pak Kyongni (박금이)
소설가, (전)대학교수

[출생-사망]
1926년 12월 2일 (음력 1926년10월28일),
경상남도 통영 - 2008년 5월 5일 (81세)

[데뷔] 1955년 단편소설 '계산'

[학력사항]
~ 1994 이화여자대학교 문학 명예박사
~ 1945 진주여자고등학교



[경력사항]
1999.04 대통령자문 새천년준비위원회 위원
1997.04 호암재단 이사
1997 연세대학교 석좌교수
1996.11 제1회 한중청년학술상위원회 위원
1996.05 토지문화재단 창립 이사장
1995.03 연세대학교 객원교수
1995 96년 문학의해 조직위원회 위원
1955 평화신문 서울신문 기자
1950 연안여자중학교 교사


[수상내역]
2008 금관문화훈장
1999 한국예술평론가협의회 선정 20세기를
빛낸 한국의 예술인
1996 칠레정부 가브리엘라 미스트랄
기념메달
1996 제6회 호암예술상
1994 유네스코 서울협회 올해의 인물
1994 올해의 여성상
1992 보관문화훈장
1990 제4회 인촌상
1972 제7회 월탄문학상
1965 제2회 한국여류문학상
1959 제3회 내성문학상
1957 제3회 현대문학 신인문학상


--------------------------------------
[출생] 1926년 12월 2일
대한민국 경상남도 통영시
[사망] 2008년 5월 5일 (81세)
대한민국 서울특별시
[직업] 문인
[국적] 대한민국
[주요 작품] 토지
김약국의 딸들
[주요 수상] 금관문화훈장(1등급)
[종교] 천주교(소화 데레사)


박경리(朴景利, 1926년 12월 2일(음력 10
월 28일) ~ 2008년 5월 5일)는 대한민국의
소설가이다.


본명은 박금이(朴今伊)이다.
대하소설 《토지》가 대표작이며 이 외에도
《김약국의 딸들》, 《불신시대》 등 많은
작품이 있다.


[생애]
1926년 경상남도 충무(지금의 통영)에서
태어났다. 1945년 진주여자고등학교를
졸업한 뒤 결혼하였으나 부군은 좌익으로
몰려 한국전쟁 중에 서대문 형무소에서
죽음을 맞았다. 1955년 소설가 김동리의 추
천으로 단편 〈계산〉과 1956년 단편 〈흑
흑백백〉이 현대문학에 발표되면서 작가로
서의 본격적인 삶을 시작한다. 2007년 7월
말 폐암이 발견됐으나 고령을 이유로 치료
를 거부하였다. 하지만 병세가 악화되어,
2008년 4월 4일 뇌졸중 증세까지 나타나 서
울아산병원에 입원하였다. 입원 후 의식불
명 상태에 빠져 중환자실에서 치료를 받
다, 2008년 5월 5일 오후 2시 45분 경 향
년 83세로 세상을 떠났다.
대한민국 정부는 박경리의 사망 직후, 금관
문화훈장을 추서하기로 결정하였다.


[가족 관계]
남편 김행도는 1950년 한국 전쟁 당시에 좌
익으로 몰려 서대문 형무소에서 죽음을 맞
았으며, 그와의 사이에 외동딸 김영주를 두
었다. 김영주는 1973년 시인 김지하와 결혼
하였으며 현재 강원도 원주시의 토지문화
관 관장직을 맡고 있다.


[주요 작품 및 수상]
작품 〈계산〉
〈흑흑백백〉
〈불신시대(不信時代)〉
〈암흑시대〉
〈표류도〉
〈파시(波市)〉
<가을에 온 여인>
〈김약국의 딸들〉
〈시장과 전장〉
〈나비와 엉겅퀴〉
〈영원의 반려〉
〈단층〉
〈노을진 들녘〉
〈신교수의 부인〉
《토지》


<성녀와 마녀>
<생명의 아픔>


[수상]
월탄문학상
인촌상
한국여류문학상
내성문학상
금관문화훈장

======================================
Pak Kyongni
(October 28, 1926 – May 5, 2008) was a
prominent South Korean novelist.
She was born in Tongyeong, in
Gyeongsangnam-do Province, and later
lived in Wonju in Gangwon-do Province.
Park made her literary debut in 1955,
with Gyesan (계산, Calculations). She
is, however, most well known for her 16-
volume story Toji (토지, The Land), an
epic saga set on the turbulent history
of Korea during 19th and 20th century.
It was later adapted into a movie, a
television series and an opera.



“She is a big figure in Korean
literature, who we will have little
chance to meet in the near future.”
Pak Kyongni died from lung cancer at
the age of 81 on May 5, 2008 and many
literary men recollected her as a guide
for their literary works and life as a
writer. She was posthumously awarded
the country's top medal by the Culture
Ministry of South Korea for her
promoting South Korean arts.

[Life]
Pak Kyongni was born as the first
daughter to a middle-class family in
1926 in Tongyeong, South Gyeongsang
Province. Her birth name was Park
Geum-i (박금이). Her father, Park Su-
yeong (박수영) married her mother at
his age of fourteen, who was older than
he was by 4 years. The relationship
between her parents did not get on
well, which deeply affected her life.
Her misery started when her father left
her mother right away after she was
born. Later, she said that she had both
sympathy and contempt toward her
mother, but hatred against her father.
Therefore, she was isolated in the
extremely conflicting feelings and
befriended books in her imaginative
world.

Pak married Kim Haeng-do (김행도), a
clerk of the Office of Monopoly (전매
부) in 1946 one year after her
graduation from Jinju Girls' High
school (진주고등여학교). However, her
suffering did not end with her
marriage. Instead, it got worse when
her husband was accused of being a
communist and went missing during the
Korean War and eventually died in
Seodaemun Prison. Not only that, she
lost her 3 years-old baby son in the
same year. Park became a widow with her
daughter and mother for whom she had to
financially support. Pak began her
career as a professional writer in 1955
after a recommendation by a novelist
and poet, Kim Dong-ri (김동리 1913 ~
1995). Park underwent breast cancer in
the 1960s and had to raise her
grandson, Wonbo after her son-in-law
and a poet, Kim Chi-Ha (김지하) was
arrested for the accusation of being a
communist in the 1970s just like her
husband. She had even suffered from
lung cancer herself until she died.

[Work]
When Pak Kyongni debuted, she said "If
I had been happy, I would have not
begun writing." Park also said
later, "I live with my mother and
daughter and had to support them
financially by myself. I began writing
since I had hope to get away from my
adversity." Her sorrowful personal life
surely influenced her works, where she
emphasized human dignity.

Pak started her career as a writer with
the novel, Calculations (계산, Gyesan)
and her early work was heavily guided
by her unfortunate life. Each narrator
in her novels like Time of distrust (불
신시대, Bulsin Sidae) and Time of
Darkness (암흑시대, Amheuk Sidae) are
often a daughter living with her mother
who lost her husband and son, which was
true with her own life. In her later
work, The Daughters of Pharmacist Kim
(김약국의 딸들, Kimyakgukui Ttaldeul),
she still deals with characters who get
over with their difficulties. However,
she got more objective point of view in
that her fictional setting moved from
the Korean war to everyday life and
employed more various writing
techniques and topics.

Pak showed the importance of human
dignity in all her works. She defined
human dignity as protecting the noblest
thing for oneself. She criticized a
tradition, a system, and authority
which cause people not to protect their
dignity, and also disdained people who
lost their dignity because of their
desires. Additionally, her works are
concerned with human isolation,
absolute trust in love.

[Toji (The Land)]
Toji (The Land) is the most famous of
Pak Kyongni's novels. The epic novel
was started as a serial publication in
the September 1969 issue
of "Contemporary Literature" (현대문학,
Hyundae Munhak). It took her 25 years
to write. It depicts the turbulence at
the turn of the 20th century when
Korean people were struggling against
Japanese imperialism. It has hundreds
of characters from across the Korean
peninsula and follows them from the
late 19th century to the early 20th
century through Japan’s colonial rule
to the division of the peninsula. "Kim,
Gil-sang" (김길상) and "Choi, Seo-hee"
(최서희), the main heroes of the novel,
like other heroes in Pak’s novels,
struggle to save their own dignity in
the most turbulent period of Korean
history. It has significant literary
artistry in style, native folk language
and diverse character portrayals,
depicting Korea’s eventual and sadness-
ridden modern history through the love
of vast "Mother Earth". It is
considered as a masterpiece of
contemporary Korean literature. It has
been made into a TV series, a movie,
and an opera. It has been translated
into several languages including
English, German, French and Japanese.
It also has been included in the UNESCO
Collection of Representative Works.

[Legacy]
Pak Kyongni is regarded as one of the
most famous and respected writers in
South Korea. She opened up a new
chapter in Korean literary history with
her remarkable epic novel Toji and also
produced 20 other high quality novels
and 3 poetry collections that had a
huge impact on Korean writers and
readers. Pak opened Toji Culture Center
on the spot of her original home in
Wonju, Gangwon Province, in 1999. She
helped and nurture new writers in the
center. Pak also served as a
chairperson of the board of trustees of
the Toji Culture Foundation, which was
established in 1996. She promoted and
preserved young writers’ active
literary thoughts by fostering and
nurturing their creative attitudes and
lifestyles.

[Works]
1955 Calculation (계산, Gyesan)
1956 Black and Black and White and
White (흑흑백백, Heukheuk baekbaek)
1957 Period of Distrust (불신시대, Bulsin Sidae)
1957 Missions
1958 Love Song (연가, Yeonga )
1958 Byeokji (벽지)
1958 Time of Darkness (암흑시대, Amheuk Sidae)
1959 Pyoryudo (표류도)
1962 The Daughters of Pharmacist Kim (김
약국의 딸들, Kimyakgukui Ttaldeul)
1963 Pasi (파시)
1965 The Market and War field (시장과 전
장, Sijang gwa Jeonjang)
1965 Green Zone (Nokjidae, 녹지대)
1969-1994 Toji (토지 The Land)
My Mind is Lake (내 마음은 호수)
Blue Galaxy (푸른 은하)

[Works in Translation]
Land 1 (토지 1)
Markt und Krieg (시장과 전장)
Land 2 (토지 2)
Land 3 (토지 3)
Land 4 (토지 4)
The Curse of Kim's Daughters (김약국의 딸들)
土地 第1部 第1卷 (토지 1)
金药局家的女儿们 (김약국의 딸들)
土地 第一部 第三卷 (토지 3)
La Terre (토지)
Les filles du Pharmacien Kim (김약국의 딸들)

[Awards]
The Woltan Literature Award (for Land).
Contemporary Literature (Hyundae Munhak) Award (1958)
The Inchon Award
The Bogwan Order of Cultural Merit (awarded 1992).
Order of Cultural Merit, Geum-gwan
Medal (Gold Crown) 금관장 (awarded posthumously).

(from naver.com wikipedia.org)


Domestic,Kim's Daughters,period of Distrust,Darkness,influence(+) ~
(PIG: time-variant)

Positive Influence GRADE (PIG): D+


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